In [1]:

```
# calculating static error and static correction
# Variables
Am = 127.50;
At = 127.43;
# Calculations and Results
e = Am-At;
print "Static error(V) = ", e
Sc = -e;
print "Static Correction(V) = ", Sc
```

In [2]:

```
# calculating true value of the temperature
# Variables
Am = 95.45;
Sc = -0.08;
# Calculations
At = Am+Sc;
# Results
print "True Temperature(Degree C) = ", At
```

In [3]:

```
# calculating Relative error (expressed as a percentage of f.s.d)
# Variables
Am = 1.46;
At = 1.50;
# Calculations and Results
e = Am-At;
print "Absolute error(V) = ", e
Sc = -e;
print "Absolute Correction(V) = ", Sc
RE = (e/At)*100;
print "Relative Error in terms of true value(in percentage) = ", RE
REF = (e/2.5)*100;
print "Relative Error in terms of true value(in percentage) = ", REF
```

In [4]:

```
# calculating static error and static correction
# Variables
Am = 0.000161;
At = 0.159*10**-3;
# Calculations and Results
e = Am-At;
print "Static error(m3/s) = ", e
Sc = -e;
print "Static Correction(m3/s) = ", Sc
```

In [5]:

```
#calculating maximum static error
# Variables
#Span of the thermometer(degree C)
S = 200.-150;
#Accuracy of the thermometer(in terms of percentage of span)
A = 0.0025;
# Calculations
e = A*S;
# Results
print "Maximum Static error(degree C) = ", e
```

In [7]:

```
# calculating the pressure for a dial reading of 100
# Calculations
P = ((27.58-6.895)/150)*100+6.895;
# Results
print "pressure for a dial reading of 100(kN/m2) = ", P
```

In [8]:

```
# calculating the noise output voltage of the amplifier
# Variables
Bw = 100.*10**3;
Sn = 7.*10**-21;
R = 50.*10**3;
# Calculations and Results
A = (Sn*R*Bw)**0.5;
En = 2*A;
print "Noise voltage at input(V) = ", En
Ga = 100;
Eno = En*Ga;
print "Noise voltage at output(V) = ", Eno
```

In [9]:

```
# calculating the noise voltage
# Variables
Sn = 20.;
Vs = 3;
# Calculations
Vn = Vs/(Sn)**0.5;
# Results
print "noise Voltage(mV) = ", Vn
```

In [11]:

```
import math
# calculating the signal to noise ratio at input
# calculating the signal to noise ratio at output
#calculating the noise factor and noise figure
# Calculations and Results
print "signal to noise ratio at input"
Sni = (3.*10**-6/(1*10**-6))**2;
print "signal to noise ratio at input = ", Sni
print "signal to noise ratio at output"
Sno = (60.*10**-6/(20*10**-6))**2;
print "signal to noise ratio at output = ", Sno
print "New signal to noise ratio at output"
Snno = (60.*10**-6/(25*10**-6))**2;
print "signal to noise ratio at output = ", Snno
F = Sni/Snno;
print "noise Factor = ", F
nf = 10*math.log10(F);
print "noise Figure(dB) = ", nf
```

In [12]:

```
# calculating the ratio of output signal to noise signal
# Variables
Bw = 100.*10**3;
K = 1.38*10**-23;
T = 300.;
R = 120.;
# Calculations and Results
A = (K*T*R*Bw)**0.5;
En = 2*A;
print "Noise voltage (V) = ", En
Eno = 0.12*10**-3;
print "Noise voltage at output(V) = ", Eno
Ra = Eno/En;
print "Ratio of signal votage to Noise voltage = ", Ra
```

In [13]:

```
# Variables
#calculating the average force and range of error
F1 = 10.03;
F2 = 10.10;
F3 = 10.11;
F4 = 10.08;
# Calculations and Results
Fav = (F1+F2+F3+F4)/4;
print "Average Force(N) = ", Fav
Fmax = F3;
MaxR = Fmax-Fav;
Fmin = F1;
MinR = Fav-Fmin;
AvgR = (MaxR+MinR)/2;
print "Average range of error (N) = ", AvgR
```

In [14]:

```
# Variables
#calculating the sum of resistances connected in series with uncertainity of one unit
R1 = 72.3;
R2 = 2.73;
R3 = 0.612;
# Calculations
R = (R1+R2+R3);
# Results
print "sum of resistances(ohm) = ", R
print "the resultant resistance is 75.6 ohm with 6 as first doutful figure"
```

In [15]:

```
#calculating the power with uncertainity of one unit in voltage and current
# Variables
V = 12.16;
I = 1.34;
# Calculations
P = V*I;
# Results
print "Power(W) = ", P
print "the resultant is 16.2 W with 2 as first doutful figure"
```

In [16]:

```
#calculating the sum of resistances connected in series with appropriate number of significant figure
# Variables
R1 = 28.7;
R2 = 3.624;
# Calculations
R = (R1+R2);
# Results
print "sum of resistances(ohm) = ", R
print "the resultant resistance is 32.3 ohm as one of the resistance is accurate to three significant figure"
```

In [17]:

```
#calculating the voltage drop with appropriate number of significant figure
# Variables
R = 31.27;
I = 4.37;
# Calculations
E = I*R;
# Results
print "voltage drop(V) = ", E
print "the voltage drop is 137 V as one of the resistance is accurate to three significant figure"
```

In [18]:

```
#calculating the sensitivity and deflection factor of wheatstone bridge
# Variables
Mo = 3.;
Mi = 7;
# Calculations and Results
Sen = Mo/Mi;
print "sensitivity(mm per ohm) = ", Sen
Df = Mi/Mo;
print "deflection factor( ohm per mm) = ", Df
```

In [19]:

```
#calculating the volume of the mercury thermometer
# Calculations and Results
Ac = (math.pi/4)*0.25**2;
print "Area of mercury thermometer", Ac
Lc = 13.8*10**3;
Vc = Ac*Lc;
print "Volume of mercury thermometer(mm3)", Vc
```

In [20]:

```
#calculating the maximum position deviation, resistance deviation
# Variables
Pl = 0.001;
FSD = 320;
R = 10000;
# Calculations and Results
MDD = (Pl*FSD);
print "Maximum lacement deviation(degree) =",MDD
MRD = Pl*R;
print "Maximum lacement deviation(ohm) = ",MRD
```

In [22]:

```
#calculating the dead zone
# Variables
s = 600;
# Calculations
Dz = 0.00125*s;
# Results
print "Dead zone(degree C) = ", Dz
```

In [24]:

```
#calculating the Resolution
# Variables
Fs = 200.;
D = 100.;
# Calculations
SD = Fs/D;
R = SD/10;
# Results
print "resolution (V) = ", R
```

In [25]:

```
#calculating the Resolution
# Variables
Fs = 9.999;
D = 9999;
# Calculations
SD = Fs/D;
R = SD;
# Results
print "resolution (V) = ", R
```

In [26]:

```
#calculating the reading of the multimeter and percentage error
# Variables
Zl = 20000.;
Zo = 10000.;
Eo = 6.;
# Calculations and Results
El = Eo/(1+Zo/Zl);
print "Reading of the multimeter (V) = ", El
PE = ((El-Eo)/Eo)*100;
print "Percentage error = ", PE
```

In [27]:

```
#calculating the reading of the multimeter and percentage error
# Variables
Zl = 20000.;
Zo = 1000.;
Eo = 6;
# Calculations and Results
El = Eo/(1+Zo/Zl);
print "Reading of the multimeter (V) = ", El
PE = ((El-Eo)/Eo)*100;
print "Percentage error = ", PE
```

In [28]:

```
#calculating the loading error
# Variables
Zl = 1000.;
Zo = 200*200./400;
Eo = 100*200./400;
# Calculations and Results
El = Eo/(1+Zo/Zl);
print "Reading of the multimeter (V) = ", El
PE = ((El-Eo)/Eo)*100;
print "Percentage loading error = ", PE
Ac = 100+PE;
print "Accuracy = ", Ac
```

In [29]:

```
import math
#calculating the voltage across the oscilloscope
# Variables
C = 50*10.**-6;
# Calculations and Results
f = 100000.;
print "frequency = ", f
Xc = 1./(2*math.pi*f*C);
R = 10.**6;
Zl = (R*-1j*Xc)/(R-1j*Xc);
Eo = 1.;
Zo = 10.*10**3;
El = Eo/(1+Zo/Zl);
print "Reading of the multimeter (V) = ", El
```

In [31]:

```
#calculating the actual value of current, measured value of current and percentage error
# Variables
Eo = 10.-((10.*1000)/(1000+1000));
Zo = ((1000.*1000)/(1000+1000))+500;
# Calculations and Results
Io = Eo/Zo;
print "Actual value of current (A) = ", Io
Zl = 100.;
Il = Eo/(Zo+Zl);
print "Measured value of current (A) = ", Il
PE = ((Il-Io)/Io)*100;
print "Percentage loading error = ", PE
```

In [32]:

```
#calculating the maximum available power
# Variables
Eo = 80.*10**-3;
Il = 5.*10**-9;
Rl = 6.*10**6;
# Calculations
Ro = (Eo/Il)-Rl;
Pmax = (Eo**2)/(4*Ro);
# Results
print "Maximum available Power(W) = ", Pmax
```