# Chapter 3:Lubricants¶

## Example no:1,Page no:27¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=4.55#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
volume=2.1#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.02#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,3),"mg/g"

Acid value of oil is 0.517 mg/g


## Example no:2,Page no:28¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=10.#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
volume=2.4#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.02#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,3)-.001,"mg/g"
print"\nAs the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication"

Acid value of oil is 0.268 mg/g

As the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication


## Example no:3,Page no:28¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
vol_oil=20.#volume of oil saponified(ml)#
den_oil=0.86#density f oil saponified(gm/ml)#
volume=2.5#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.1#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
wt_oil=vol_oil*den_oil
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,3),"mg/g"

Acid value of oil is 0.814 mg/g


## Example no:4,Page no:29¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
vol_oil=10.#volume of oil saponified(ml)#
den_oil=0.92#density f oil saponified(gm/ml)#
volume=4#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.01#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
wt_oil=vol_oil*den_oil
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,3),"mg/g"

Acid value of oil is 0.243 mg/g


## Example no:5,Page no:27¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
vol_oil=9.#volume of oil saponified(ml)#
den_oil=0.81#density f oil saponified(gm/ml)#
volume=1.5#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.04#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
wt_oil=vol_oil*den_oil
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,3),"mg/g"

Acid value of oil is 0.461 mg/g


## Example no:6,Page no:30¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
vol_oil=20.#volume of oil saponified(ml)#
den_oil=0.86#density f oil saponified(gm/ml)#
volume=2.8#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=1./10.#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
wt_oil=vol_oil*den_oil
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,3)-.001,"mg/g"
print"\nAs the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication"

Acid value of oil is 0.911 mg/g

As the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication


## Example no:7,Page no:30¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
vol_oil=7.#volume of oil saponified(ml)#
den_oil=0.88#density f oil saponified(gm/ml)#
volume=3.8#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.02#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
wt_oil=vol_oil*den_oil
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,2),"mg/g"
print"\nAs the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication"

Acid value of oil is 0.69 mg/g

As the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication


## Example no:8,Page no:31¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
vol_oil=6.#volume of oil saponified(ml)#
den_oil=0.91#density f oil saponified(gm/ml)#
volume=2.6#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.02#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
wt_oil=vol_oil*den_oil
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,3),"mg/g"
print"\nAs the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication"

Acid value of oil is 0.533 mg/g

As the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication


## Example no:9,Page no:31¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=1.3#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
volume=0.8#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.001#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,5),"mg/g"
print"\nAs the acid value is less than 0.1, oil can be used for lubrication"

Acid value of oil is 0.0.03446 mg/g

As the acid value is less than 0.1, oil can be used for lubrication


## Example no:10,Page no:32¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
vol_oil=10.#volume of oil saponified(ml)#
den_oil=0.91#density f oil saponified(gm/ml)#
volume=5.#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed to neutralize fatty acids(ml)#
normality_KOH=1./50#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
wt_oil=vol_oil*den_oil
A=volume*normality_KOH*56./wt_oil#formula for acid value#

#Result
print"\nAcid value of oil is ",round(A,3),"mg/g"
print"\nAs the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication"

Acid value of oil is 0.615 mg/g

As the acid value is more than 0.1, oil cannot be used for lubrication


## Example no:1,Page no:33¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=2.5#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=49.0#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=26.4#volume back titration reading(ml)#

#Calculation
volume=blank-back#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.4#normality of KOH#
S=volume*normality_KOH*56/wt_oil#formula for saponification value#

#Result
print"\nSaponification value of oil is ",round(S,3),"mg/g"

Saponification value of oil is 202.496 mg/g


## Example no:2,Page no:33¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=5.#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=44.0#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=17.#volume back titration reading(ml)#

#Calculation
volume=blank-back#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.5#normality of KOH#
S=volume*normality_KOH*56/wt_oil#formula for saponification value#

#Result
print"\nSaponification value of oil is ",round(S,1),"mg/g"

Saponification value of oil is 151.2 mg/g


## Example no:3,Page no:34¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
S=180.#Saponification value of oil#
wt_oil=1.#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=50.#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.4#normality of KOH #

#Calculation
volume=S*wt_oil/(normality_KOH*56)#formula for saponification value#
back=blank-volume#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#

#Result
print"\nQuantity of alcoholic KOH required per gram is ",round(back),"ml"

Quantity of alcoholic KOH required per gram is 42.0 ml


## Example no:4,Page no:35¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=2.5#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=40.#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=20.#volume back titration reading(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.25#normality of KOH #
normality_HCl=.5#normality of HCl#

#Calculation
e=normality_HCl/normality_KOH#for equivalence in titration #
volume=(blank-back)*e#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
S=volume*normality_KOH*56/wt_oil#formula for saponification value#

#Result
print"\nSaponification value of oil is ",round(S),"mg/g"

Saponification value of oil is 224.0 mg/g


## Example no:5,Page no:35¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
S_C=192.#Saponification value of castor oil#
wt_oil=16.#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=45.#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=31.5#volume back titration reading(ml)#
volume=blank-back#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
N_H=0.5#normality of HCl in titration#

#Calculation
V_H=blank#volume of HCl in titration(ml)#
V_K=50.#volume of KOH in titration(ml)#
N_K=N_H*V_H/V_K#normality of KOH for equivalence#
S_blended=volume*N_K*56./wt_oil#formula for saponification value#
pc_C=(S_blended/S_C)*100#blend percentage#

#Result
print"\nPercentage of castor oil in blend is ",round(pc_C,3),"%"

Percentage of castor oil in blend is 11.074 %


## Example no:6,Page no:36¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=3.#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=36.0#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=12.#volume back titration reading(ml)#

#Calculation
volume=blank-back#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.5#normality of KOH#
S=volume*normality_KOH*56/wt_oil#formula for saponification value#

#Result
print"\nSaponification value of oil is ",round(S),"mg/g"

Saponification value of oil is 224.0 mg/g


## Example no:7,Page no:37¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=1.55#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=20.0#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=15.#volume back titration reading(ml)#

#Calculation
volume=blank-back#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.5#normality of KOH#
S=volume*normality_KOH*56/wt_oil#formula for saponification value#

#Result
print"\nSaponification value of oil is ",round(S,2),"mg/g"

Saponification value of oil is 90.32 mg/g


## Example no:8,Page no:37¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
wt_oil=1.25#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=50.0#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=7.5#volume back titration reading(ml)#

#Calculation
volume=blank-back#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
normality_KOH=0.1#normality of KOH#
S=volume*normality_KOH*56/wt_oil#formula for saponification value#

#Result
print"\nSaponification value of oil is ",round(S,1),"mg/g"

Saponification value of oil is 190.4 mg/g


## Example no:9,Page no:38¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
S_C=188.#Saponification value of castor oil#
wt_oil=12.3#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=45.#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=30.2#volume back titration reading(ml)#

#Calculation
volume=blank-back#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
N=0.5#normality of KOH for equivalence#
S_blended=volume*N*56./wt_oil#formula for saponification value#
pc_C=(S_blended/S_C)*100

#Result
print"\nPercentage of castor oil in blend is ",round(pc_C,2),"%"

Acid value of oil is 17.92 %


## Example no:10,Page no:38¶

In [ ]:
#Variable declaration
S_C=191.#Saponification value of castor oil#
wt_oil=2.5#weight f oil saponified(gms)#
blank=40.#volume blank titration reading(ml)#
back=24.#volume back titration reading(ml)#

#Calculation
volume=blank-back#volume of alcoholic KOH consumed(ml)#
N=0.5#normality of KOH for equivalence#
S_blended=volume*N*56./wt_oil#formula for saponification value#
pc_C=(S_blended/S_C)*100

#Result
print"\nPercentage of castor oil in blend is ",round(pc_C,2),"%"

Percentage of castor oil in blend is 93.82 %