In [3]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
H = 30 #Height of chimney(in m):
Ta = 27+273 #Ambient air temperature(in K):
m = 20 #Mass per kg of fuel required for complete combustion(in kg):
hw = 12 #Height in the water column(in mm):
#Calculations:
Tg = (Ta*353*H)/(353*H-hw*Ta)*(m)/(m+1)#Temperature of burnt gases(in K):
#Results:
print "Temperature of the burnt gases: ",round(Tg,2),"K"
```

In [5]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
m = 18 #Mass per kg of fuel required for complete combustion(in kg):
hw = 20 #Height in the water column(in mm):
Ta = 27+273 #Ambient air temperature(in K):
Tg = 300+273 #Temperature of burnt gases(in K):
#Calculations:
H = hw/(353*(1/Ta-(m+1)/(m*Tg)))#Height of chimney(in m):
#Results:
print "Height of chimney: ",round(H,2),"m"
```

In [7]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
H = 20 #Height of chimney(in m):
Tg = 380+273 #Temperature of burnt gases(in K):
Ta = 27+273 #Ambient air temperature(in K):
#Calculations:
m = 2*Ta/(Tg-2*Ta) #Air supplied(in kg air per fuel):
#Results:
print "Air supplied:",round(m,2),"kg/kg of fuel"
```

In [9]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
H = 60 #Height of chimney(in m):
Ta = 17+273 #Ambient air temperature(in K):
Tg = 300+273 #Temperature of burnt gases(in K):
Tga = 150+273 #Temperature of the artificial burnt gases(in K):
m = 19 #Mass per kg of fuel required for complete combustion(in kg):
Cpg = 1.0032 #Specific heat of hot gases(in kJ/kg.K):
c = 32604 #Calorific value of burnt fuel(in kJ/kg):
#Calculations:
hw = 353*H*(1/Ta-(m+1)/(m*Tg)) #Draught (in mm of water column):
n = 9.81*H*(m/(m+1)*Tg/Ta-1)/(Cpg*(Tg-Tga)*10**3)*100 #Chimney efficiency:
Q = (m+1)*Cpg*(Tg-Tga) #Extra heat carried away by flue gases(in kJ):
#Results:
print "Draught: ",round(hw,2)," mm of water"
print "Chimney efficiency",round(n,4),"%"
print "Extra heat carried away by flue gases per kg of fuel burnt",round(Q,1)," kJ"
```

In [12]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
H = 80 #Height of chimney(in m):
Ta = 27+273 #Ambient air temperature(in K):
m = 20 #Mass per kg of fuel required for complete combustion(in kg):
Tga = 110+273 #Temperature of the artificial burnt gases(in K):
Cpg = 1.0032 #Specific heat of hot gases(in kJ/kg.K):
#Calculations:
Tg = Ta*2*(m+1)/m #Temperature of burnt gases(in K):
hw = 353*H*(1/Ta-(m+1)/(m*Tg)) #Draught in water column(in mm):
n = 9.81*H*(m/(m+1)*Tg/Ta-1)/(Cpg*(Tg-Tga)*10**3)*100 #Chimney efficiency:
#Results:
print "Hot gas temperature in chimney: ",round(Tg),"K"
print "Natural draught: ",round(hw,2),"mm of water"
print "Chimney efficiency: ",round(n,4),"%"
```

In [14]:

```
from __future__ import division
from math import sqrt,pi
#Variable Declaration:
R = 2.5*10**3 #Rate at which coal is burnt(in kg/hr):
m = 20 #Mass per kg of fuel required for complete combustion(in kg):
Tg = 327+273 #Temperature of burnt gases(in K):
Ta = 27+273 #Ambient air temperature(in K):
h = 7+6+3+2 #Pressure head(in mm):
na = 0.90 #Ratio of actual natural draught to theoretical draught:
g = 9.81 #Acceleration due to gravity(in m/s**2):
#Calculations:
hw = h/na #Actual natural draught(in mm of water):
H = hw/(353*(1/Ta-(m+1)/(m*Tg))) #Height of chimney(in m):
dg = 353/Tg*(m+1)/m #Density of hot gases(in kg/m**3):
hg = H*((m+1)/m*Tg/Ta-1) #Height of hot gases column(in m):
Mg = R*hw/3600 #Mass flow rate of hot gases(in kg/s):
C = sqrt(2*g*hg) #Velocity of got gases(in m/s):
D = sqrt((4*Mg)/(pi*C*dg)) #Diameter of chimney(in m):
#Results:
print "Height of chimney:",round(H,2),"m"
print "Diameter of chimney:",round(D,2),"m"
```

In [16]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
hw = 50 #Draught in water column(in mm):
T = 300+273 #Temperature of burnt gases(in K):
m = 19 #Mass per kg of fuel required for complete combustion(in kg):
T1 = 27+273 #Ambient air temperature(in K):
T0 = 273 #Zero temperature(in K):
n = 0.90 #Mechanical efficiency:
d = 1.293 #Density of hot gases(in kg/m**3):
#Calculations:
M = 2000/3600 #Rate at which coal is burnt(in kg/s):
P = hw*9.81 #Pressure applied by the draught water(in N/m**2):
PFD = P*m*M*T1/(d*T0*n*1000) #Power required in FD fan(kW):
P1D = P*m*M*T/(d*T0*n*1000) #Power required in 1D fan(kW):
#Results:
print "Power for FD fan:",round(PFD,2),"kW"
print "Power for 1D fan:",round(P1D,2),"kW"
```

In [18]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
Cpg = 1.0032 #Specific heat of hot gases(in kJ/kg.K):
Tg = 177+273 #Temperature of burnt gases(in K):
Ta = 27+273 #Ambient air temperature(in K):
Tn = 327+273 #Natural draught temperature(in K):
mn = 25 #Mass per kg of fuel required for natural draught(in kg):
ma = 20 #Mass per kg of fuel required for artificial draught(in kg):
r = Tg/Ta #Ratio of brake power for induced draught to forced draught:
#Calculations:
Qgad = (ma+1)*Cpg*(Tg-Ta) #Heat carried by hot flue gases in artificial draught(in per kg of fuel burnt):
Qgnd = (mn+1)*Cpg*(Tn-Ta) #Heat carried by hot flue gases in natural draught(in per kg of fuel burnt):
rh = Qgad/Qgnd #Ratio of heat carried away:
#Results:
print "Ratio of power required: ",round(r,1)
print "Ratio of heat carried away: ",round(rh,3)
```

In [22]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
T = 27+273 #Feed water supply temperature(in K):
P = 10 #Mean steam generation pressure(in bar):
x = 0.95 #Dryness fravtion of steam generated:
Q = 2500 #Feed water supplied(in kg/hr):
Q1 = 275 #Coal burnt(in kg/hr):
d = 300 #Difference in mass of water after trial:
hf = 762.81 #kJ/kg #From steam tables:
hg = 2778.1 #kJ/kg
hfg = 2015.29 #kJ/kg
#Calculations:
h = hf+x*hfg #Enthalpy of steam generated(in kJ/kg):
mw = Q+d #Mass of water evaporator per hour(in kg/hr):
Ae = mw/Q1 #Actual evaporation(in per kg of coal):
Ee = Ae*h/2257 #Equivalent evaporation(in kg per kg of coal):
#Results:
print "Actual evaporation: ",round(Ae,2)," kg per kg of coal"
print "Equivalent evaporation: ",round(Ee,2),"kg per kg of coal"
```

In [24]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
p = 10 #Average pressure of the steam(in bar):
Ww = 15 #Weight of water consumed(in ton):
Wc = 1.5 #Weight of coal produced(in ton):
n = 1-0.03-0.04 #Percentage coal that caan be burnt:
nm = 0.03 #Composition of moisture in coal:
Tf = 35 #Temperature of feed water(in C):
hg = 2778.1 #From steam tables(kJ/kg)
#Calculations:
h = hg-4.18*Tf #Enthalpy of steam generated(in kJ/kg):
m = Ww/Wc #Steam generated per kg of coal(in kg):
nb = m*h/(30.1*10**3)*100 #Boiler efficiency:
Ee = m*h/(2257*(1-nm)) #Equivalent evaporation per kg of dry coal(in kg:
Eea = Ee*(1-nm)/n #Equivalent evaporation per kg of combustible present in coal(in kg):
#Results:
print "Boiler efficiency: ",round(nb,2),"%"
print "Equivalent evaporation per kg of dry coal: ",round(Ee,2),"kg"
print "Equivalent evaporation per kg of combustible present in coal: ",round(Eea,2),"kg"
```

In [26]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
t = 24 #Time of trial(in hrs):
p = 16 #Pressure at which steam is generated(in bar):
c = 10000 #Coal consumed(in kg):
r = 2500 #Rate of steam generation(in kg/hr):
Tf = 27 #Feed water temperature(in C):
hsa = 3000 #Total heating surface area(in m**2):
ga = 4 #Total grate area(in m**2):
C = 28000 #Calorific value of coal(in kJ/kg):
hg = 2794 #From steam tables(kJ/kg)
L = 2257 #Latent heat at 100 C:
#Calculations:
m = c/t #Coal burnt per hour(in kg/hr):
mg = m/ga #Coal burnt per m**2 of grate per hour:
r1 = r/m #Rate of steam generated per kg of coal(in kg steam/kg coal):
Q = r1*(hg-4.18*Tf) #Heat added to steam per kg of coal(in kJ):
Ee = Q/L #Equivalent evaporation from and at 100 C per kg of coal(in kg):
Eepm = Ee*m/hsa #Equivalent evaporation from and at 100 C per m**2 of total surface per hour(in kg):
n = Ee*L/C*100 #Boiler efficiency:
#Results:
print "Mass of coal burnt per m**2 of grate per hour: ",round(mg,2),"kg"
print "Equivalent evaporation from and at 100 C per kg of coal: ",round(Ee,2),"kg"
print "Equivalent evaporation from and at 100 C per m**2 of total surface per hour: ",round(Eepm,2),"kg"
print "Boiler efficiency: ",round(n,2),"%"
```

In [28]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
p = 30 #Pressure at which steam is generated(in bar):
Ts = 300 #Temperature of steam(in C):
r = 11 #Rate at which feed water enters(in kg/s):
T1 = 100 #Temperature at which feed water enters the economiser(in C):
m = 5000 #Mass of fuel used(in kg):
C = 35000 #Calorific value of fuel(in kJ/kg.K):
T = 27 #Temperature of feed water(in C):
hg = 2993.5 #From steam tables:
L = 2257 #Latent heat at 100 C:
#Calculations:
ms = r*3600/m #Mass of steam genrated per kg of fuel(in kg/kg fuel):
Q = hg-4.18*T #Heat added per kg of fuel(in kJ):
Ee = ms*Q/L #Equivalent evaporation from and at 100 C per kg of coal(in kg):
n = Ee*L/C*100 #Boiler efficiency:
Q1 = ms*4.18*(T1-T) #Heat utilised in economiser per kg of fuel(in kJ):
P = Q1/C*100 #Percentage of energy utilised in economiser:
#Results:
print "Equivalent evaporation per kg of fuel: ",round(Ee,2),"kg"
print "Boiler efficiency: ",round(n,2),"%"
print "Percentage of energy utilised in economiser: ",round(P,1),"%"
```

In [30]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
m = 8 #Mass of steam genrated per kg of fuel:
Ts = 400 #Temperature of steam(in C):
p = 30 #Pressure of feed water(in bar):
T = 40 #Temperature of feed water(in C):
T1 = 150 #Temperature at which feed water leaves the economiser(in C):
x = 0.98 #Dryness fraction:
C = 29000 #Calorific value(in kJ/kg.K):
h = 3230.9 #Enthalpy of steam generated(in kJ/kg): #From steam tables:
hf = 1008.42 #kJ/kg
hfg = 1795.78 #kJ/kg
#Calculations:
Q = h-4.18*T #Heat to be added(in kJ):
n = m*Q/C*100 #Boiler efficiency:
Q1 = 4.18*(T1-T) #Heat added in economiser per kg of steam generated(in kJ/kg):
r1 = Q1/Q*100 #Percentage fraction of heat in economiser:
Q2 = (hf+x*hfg)-4.18*T1 #Heat added in evaporator per kg of steam generated(in kJ/kg):
r2 = Q2/Q*100 #Percentage fraction of heat in economiser:
Q3 = Q-Q1-Q2 #Heat added in super heater per kg of steam generated by difference(in kJ/kg):
r3 = Q3/Q*100 #Percentage fraction of heat in economiser:
#Results:
print "Boiler efficiency: ",round(n,2),"%"
print "Percentage fraction of heat in economiser: ",round(r1,2),"%"
print "Percentage fraction of heat in evaporator: ",round(r2,2),"%"
print "Percentage fraction of heat in superheater: ",round(r3,2),"%"
```

In [32]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
T1 = 20 #Temperature at which feed water enters and leaves the economiser(in C):
T2 = 125
r = 3 #Rate at which feed water leaves the economiser(in kg/s):
T3 = 425 #Temperature of flue gases at inlet and outlet of economiser(in C):
T4 = 300
r1 = 18 #Rate at which coal is supplied(in kg/min):
nc = 0.80 #% of C in coal:
Cpg = 1.05 #Specific heat of flue gases(in kJ/kg.K):
Ta = 15 #Atmospheric temperature(in C):
m1 = 23.65 #Mass of dry flue gases at inlet and exit of economiser(in kg): #From table:
m2 = 24.78
#Calculations:
A = m2-m1 #Air leakage in economiser per kg of coal:
Q1 = m1*Cpg*T3+A*Cpg*Ta #Heat entering economiser with flue gases and leakage(in kJ):
Q2 = m2*Cpg*T4 #Heat entering economiser with flue gases and leakage(in kJ):
Q = Q1-Q2 #Heat lost in economiser per kg of coal(in kJ):
Q3 = (r*60/r1)*4.18*(T2-T1) #Heat picked up by feed water in economiser per kg of coal(in kJ):
#Results:
print "Heat released by the flue gases: ",round(Q,2),"kJ per kg of coal"
print "Air leakage: ",round(A,2),"kg per kg of coal"
print "Heat gained by feed water: ",round(Q3),"kJ per kg of coal"
print "___Please check there is a calculation mistake in book in calculating Q3____"
```

In [34]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
CpKg = 0.84 #Carbon present per kg:
CpKgDf = 0.0495 #Carbon present per kgof dry fluegas:
sg = 8 #Steam generated (kg per kg of coal):
mh = 0.04*9 #H2O produced during the combustion(kg per kg of coal):
ash = 0.05 #Ash produced duing cumbustion(kg per kg of coal):
M = 0.015 #Moisture in coal burnt per kg of coal:
h = 3213.6 #Enthalpy of heat generated at 40 bar 400°C (KJ/Kg):
C = 4.18 #Heat capacity of water (KJ/Kg.K):
Ti = 27 #Feed water temperature at inlet to economiser (°C):
Te = 137 #Feed water temperature at exit of economiser(°C):
Tfe = 300 #Flue gas temperature entering air heater(°C):
Tae = 120 #Temperature of air entering boiler furnace(°C):
Tatm = 15 #Atmospheric air temperature(°C):
Hs = 32600 #Heat supplied by the fuel(KJ/Kg coal):
cp = 1.0032 #Heat capacity of air and dry gas (KJ/Kg.K):
sp = 2.0064 #Specific pressure of vapour(KJ/Kg.K):
#Calculations:
md = CpKg/CpKgDf #Mass of dry flue gas per kg of coal: #Specific pressure of vapour = 2.0064 kJ/kg K #Partial pressure of vapour in flue gas = 0.075 bar #For air and dry flue gas, cp = 1.0032 kJ/kg K #Calorific value of coal = 32600 kJ/kg #Datum temperature = 15C #Dry flue gas composition by volume = 12.5% CO2, 7.5% O2, 80% N2 #Dry coal composition by mass = 84% C, 4% H2, 7% O2 and remainder ash #Temperature of air entering boiler furnace = 120C #Flue gas temperature leaving air heater and entering chimney = 150C #Flue gas temperature entering air heater = 300C #Moisture in coal burnt = 1.5% #Feed water temperature at exit of economiser = 137C #Feed water temperature at inlet to economiser = 27C #Steam generated per kg of coal = 8 kg #Steam generation: 40 bar, 400C #Atmospheric air temperature: 15C
ma = md-(1-ash-mh) #Amount of air supplied for combustion of one kg of dry coal(in kg):
m = M/(1-M) #Moisture per kg of dry coal(in kg):
mt = round(mh+m,4)#Total moisture per kg of coal(in kg):
sgd = sg/(1-M) #Steam generated per kg of dry coal(in kg steam):
H = sgd*(h-C*Ti) #Heat utilized by steam per kg of coal(KJ):
n = H/Hs*100 #Boiler efficiency:
Hu = ma*cp*(Tae-Tatm) #Heat utilized by air(KJ/Kg of coal)
Ha = (md*cp+mt*sp)*(Tfe-Te) #Heat available in air heater(KJ/Kg of coal):
na = Hu/Ha*100 #Efficiency of heat exchange in air heater:
#Results:
print "Boiler efficiency: ",round(n,2),"%"
print "Efficiency of heat exchange in air heater: ",round(na,2),"%"
```

In [36]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
p = 20 #Pressure at which steam is generated(in bar):
Ts = 300 #Temperature at which steam is generated(in C):
T1 = 50 #Temperature of feed water supplied to the boiler(in C):
C = 30000 #Calorific value of fuel(in kJ/kg):
r = 600 #Rate at which coal is used(in kg/hr):
r1 = 5000 #Rate at which steam is generated(in kg/hr):
T = 100 #Temperature of the boiler unit(in C):
L = 2257 #Latent heat(in kJ/kg.K):
#Calculations:
ms = r1/r #Steam generation per unit coal burnt per hour:
hfi = 3023.5 #Final enthalpy of the steam(in kJ/kg):
hfw = 209.33 #Enthalpy of feed water(in kJ/kg):
no = ms*(hfi-hfw)/C*100 #Overall efficiency of boiler:
Ee = ms*(hfi-hfw)/L #Equivalent evaporation of boiler unit(in kg steam per kg of coal):
Eea = Ee*r #Equivalent evaporation of boiler unit at 100 C(in kg/hr):
hfw1 = 313.93 #After fitting economiser the enthalp of feed water(in kJ/kg):
nom = no+5 #Modified overall efficiency of boiler unit:
mc = (hfi-hfw1)*r1*100/(C*nom) #Coal consumption(in kg/hr):
s = r-mc #Saving of coal(in kg/hr):
#Results:
print "Saving of coal: ",round(s,2),"kg/hr"
```

In [38]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
r = 5000 #Rate at which steam is generated(in kg/hr):
p = 20 #Pressure of steam(in bar):
x = 0.98 #Dryness fraction:
T = 60 #Temperature of feed water(in °C):
r1 = 600 #Rate at which coal is supplied(in kg/hr):
r2 = 16 #Rate at which air is supplied(in kg per kg coal):
C = 30000 #Cslorific value of coal(in kJ/kg):
Tr = 20 #Temperature of boiler room(in °C):
nl = 0.86 #Fraction of heat losr with flue gases:
Cpg = 1.005 #Specific heat of flue gases(in kJ/kg.K):
#From steam tables:
hf = 908.79 #kJ/kg
hfg = 1890.7 #kJ/kg
#Calculations:
ms = r/r1 #Mass of steam genrated per kg of coal:
hfi = hf+x*hfg #Enthalpy of final steam produced(in kJ/kg):
hfw = 251.13 #Enthalpy of feed water(in kJ/kg):
Q = ms*(hfi-hfw) #Heat used for steam generation(in kJ per kg of coal):
Ql = C-Q #Heat lost per kg of coal:
Qlf = nl*Ql #Heat lost with flue gases(in kJ per kg of coal):
Tgas = Tr+Qlf/((r2+1)*Cpg) #Temperature of flue gases(in °C):
#Results:
print "Temperature of flue gases: ",round(Tgas,2)," °C"
```

In [40]:

```
from __future__ import division
#Variable Declaration:
Ta = 20+273 #Ambient temperature(in K):
V = 20 #Velocity(in m/s):
hw1 = 30 #Draught lost through grate(in mm of water column):
nm = 0.80 #Mechanical efficiency:
mf = 1000 #Rate at which coal is burnt(in kg/hr):
ma = 16 #Rate at which air is supplied(in kg/hr):
pa = 1.01325 #Ambient pressure(in bar):
d = 1.29 #Density of air(in kg/m**3):
g = 9.81 #Acceleration due to gravity(in m/s**2):
T0 = 273 #Zero temperature(in K):
#Calculations:
P1 = d*V**2/2 #Pressure equivalent to velocity head(in N/m**2):
P = P1/g #mm of water column
hw = hw1+P #Total draught loss(in mm of water column):
p = hw*g #Pressure required(in N/m**2):
PFD = p*mf*ma*Ta/(d*T0*nm*3600) #F.D. fan power requirement(in W):
#Results:
print "F.D. fan power: ",round(PFD/10**3,2),"KW"
```