# 1: Atomic Spectra¶

## Example number 1, Page number 55¶

In [2]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
n1=3;
n2=5;        #states
RH=1.0977*10**7;

#Calculations
newbar=RH*((1/n1**2)-(1/n2**2));
lamda=10**6/newbar;         #wavelength of emitted photon(angstrom)

#Result
print "wavelength of emitted photon is",round(lamda,3),"angstrom"

wavelength of emitted photon is 1.281 angstrom


## Example number 2, Page number 56¶

In [8]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
E1=1.21;
E2=1.96;        #energy of two orbits(eV)

#Calculations
n1=math.sqrt(E2);
n2=math.sqrt(E1);       #ratio of principal quantum number of two orbits
n1=n1*10;
n2=n2*10;               #multiply and divide the ratio by 10

#Result
print "ratio of principal quantum number of two orbits is",int(n1),"/",int(n2)

ratio of principal quantum number of two orbits is 14 / 11


## Example number 3, Page number 56¶

In [11]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
e=1.6*10**-19;            #charge(coulomb)
mp=1.672*10**-27;         #mass of electron(kg)
h=6.62*10**-34;           #planks constant(Js)

#Calculations
mewp=e*h/(4*math.pi*mp);  #magnetic moment of proton(Am**2)

#Result
print "magnetic moment of proton is",round(mewp*10**27,3),"*10**-27 Am**2"
print "answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors"

magnetic moment of proton is 5.041 *10**-27 Am**2
answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors


## Example number 4, Page number 56¶

In [13]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
mewB=9.274*10**-24;       #bohr magneton(amp m**2)
h=6.62*10**-34;           #planks constant(Js)

#Calculations
ebym=mewB*4*math.pi/h;    #specific charge of electron(coulomb/kg)

#Result
print "specific charge of electron is",round(ebym/10**11,4),"*10**11 coulomb/kg"
print "answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors"

specific charge of electron is 1.7604 *10**11 coulomb/kg
answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors


## Example number 5, Page number 57¶

In [17]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
e=1.6*10**-19;      #charge(coulomb)
B=1;                #flux density(Wb/m**2)
lamda=6000*10**-10; #wavelength(m)
m=9.1*10**-31;      #mass(kg)
c=3*10**8;          #velocity of light(m/sec)

#Calculations
d_lamda=B*e*(lamda**2)/(4*math.pi*m*c);     #wavelength separation(m)
d_lamda=2*d_lamda*10**10;                   #wavelength separation(angstrom)

#Result
print "wavelength separation is",round(d_lamda,4),"angstrom"
print "answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors"

wavelength separation is 0.3358 angstrom
answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors


## Example number 6, Page number 57¶

In [19]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
n1=1;
n2=2;        #states

#Calculations
E1=-13.6/n1**2;     #energy of electron in 1st orbit(eV)
E2=-13.6/n2**2;     #energy of electron in 2nd orbit(eV)

#Result
print "energy of electron in 1st and 2nd orbit is",E1,"eV and",E2,"eV"

energy of electron in 1st and 2nd orbit is -13.6 eV and -3.4 eV


## Example number 8, Page number 58¶

In [21]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
h=6.62*10**-34;           #planks constant(Js)

#Calculations
L=h/(2*math.pi*lamda);    #linear momentum(kg ms-1)

#Result
print "linear momentum is",round(L*10**24,3),"*10**-24 kg ms-1"

linear momentum is 2.107 *10**-24 kg ms-1


## Example number 9, Page number 58¶

In [26]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
E1=-13.6;     #energy of electron in 1st orbit(eV)
E2=-12.75;    #energy of electron in 2nd orbit(eV)

#Calculations
n=math.sqrt(-E1/(E2-E1));    #state to which it is excited

#Result
print "state to which it is excited is",int(n)

state to which it is excited is 4


## Example number 10, Page number 59¶

In [28]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
e=1.6*10**-19;          #charge(coulomb)
m=9.1*10**-31;          #mass of electron(kg)
h=6.62*10**-34;         #planks constant(Js)

#Calculations
mewB=e*h/(4*math.pi*m);  #bohr magneton(coulomb Js kg-1)

#Result
print "bohr magneton is",round(mewB*10**24,3),"*10**-24 coulomb Js kg-1"
print "answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors"

bohr magneton is 9.262 *10**-24 coulomb Js kg-1
answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors


## Example number 11, Page number 59¶

In [30]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
e=1.6*10**-19;          #charge(coulomb)
m=9.1*10**-31;          #mass of electron(kg)
B=0.02;                 #magnetic field(T)

#Calculations
delta_new=e*B/(4*math.pi*m);    #component separation(Hz)

#Result
print "component separation is",round(delta_new/10**8,4),"*10**8 Hz"
print "answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors"

component separation is 2.7983 *10**8 Hz
answer in the book varies due to rounding off errors


## Example number 14, Page number 61¶

In [33]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
e=1.6*10**-19;          #charge(coulomb)
m=9.1*10**-31;          #mass of electron(kg)
lamda=10000*10**-10;    #wavelength(m)
c=3*10**8;              #velocity of light(m/sec)
d_lamda=1*10**-10;      #wavelength separation(m)

#Calculations
B=d_lamda*4*math.pi*m*c/(e*lamda**2);      #magnetic flux density(Tesla)

#Result
print "magnetic flux density is",round(B,2),"Tesla"

magnetic flux density is 2.14 Tesla


## Example number 19, Page number 66¶

In [41]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
e=1.6*10**-19;          #charge(coulomb)
m=9.1*10**-31;          #mass of electron(kg)
lamda=4226;             #wavelength(angstrom)
c=3*10**8;              #velocity of light(m/sec)
B=4;                    #magnetic field(Wb/m**2)

#Calculations
dnew=B*e/(4*math.pi*m);
dlamda=lamda**2*dnew*10**-10/c;      #separation(angstrom)
dlamda1=lamda+dlamda;
dlamda2=dlamda1+dlamda;    #wavelength of three components(Hz)

#Result
print "separation is",round(dlamda,2),"angstrom"
print "wavelength of three components is",lamda,"angstrom",round(dlamda1,2),"angstrom",round(dlamda2,3),"angstrom"

separation is 0.33 angstrom
wavelength of three components is 4226 angstrom 4226.33 angstrom 4226.666 angstrom


## Example number 21, Page number 68¶

In [42]:
#importing modules
import math
from __future__ import division

#Variable declaration
n1=1;
n2=2;
n3=3;
n4=4;
n5=5;

#Calculations
e1=2*n1**2;     #maximum number of electrons in 1st orbit
e2=2*n2**2;     #maximum number of electrons in 2nd orbit
e3=2*n3**2;     #maximum number of electrons in 3rd orbit
e4=2*n4**2;     #maximum number of electrons in 4th orbit
e5=2*n5**2;     #maximum number of electrons in 5th orbit
e=e1+e2+e3+e4+e5;      #number of elements

#Result
print "number of elements would be",e

number of elements would be 110