import math #Variable Declaration #For Scale reading =10 V, and precise voltage=9.5 V scale_reading=10 #Scale reading is 10 V precise_reading=9.5 #Precise voltage is 9.5 V error=(precise_reading-scale_reading)/scale_reading*100 #Error in percentage form w.r.t reading error_fullscale=(precise_reading-scale_reading)*100/100 #Error with respect to full scale print "When scale reading is 10 V and precise voltage is 9.5 V," print "Error=-",round(error,1),"% of reading=",error_fullscale, "% of full scale" print #For Scale reading =50 V, and precise voltage=51.7 V scale_reading=50 #Scale reading is 50 V precise_reading=51.7 #Precise voltage is 51.7 V error=(precise_reading-scale_reading)/scale_reading*100 #Error in percentage form error_fullscale=(precise_reading-scale_reading)*100/100 print "When scale reading is 50 V and precise voltage is 51.7 V," print "Error= +",round(error,1),"% of reading= +",error_fullscale, "% of full scale"
When scale reading is 10 V and precise voltage is 9.5 V, Error=- -5.0 % of reading= -0.5 % of full scale When scale reading is 50 V and precise voltage is 51.7 V, Error= + 3.4 % of reading= + 1.7 % of full scale
import math #Variable Declaration V=114 #Measured Voltage in V I=1 #Measured Current in A W=120 #Full Scale wattage in W P=V*I #Wattmeter Power error=P-W #Correction figure print "Correction figure=",error,"W" error=error*100/W #Error % print "Error=",error,"%"
Correction figure= -6 W Error= -5 %
import math #Variable Declaration R4=1125.0 R5=4017.9 Vz=6.4 accuracy=100.0/10**6 #100ppm #Calculation #Maximum and Minimum values of resistances in ohm R4max=R4*(1+accuracy) R4min=R4*(1-accuracy) R5max=R5*(1+accuracy) R5min=R5*(1-accuracy) #Maximum and minimum zener voltages in V Vzmax=Vz+Vz*0.01/100 #Maximum voltage is Vz+0.01% of Vz Vzmin=Vz-Vz*0.01/100 #Minimum voltage is Vz-0.01% of Vz #Maximum and minimum output voltages in V Vomax=Vzmax*(R5max/(R4min+R5max)) #Output is maximum when Vz is maximum, R5 is minimum and R4 is maximum Vomin=Vzmin*(R5min/(R4max+R5min)) #Output is minimum when Vzi mimimum, R5 is maximum and R4 is minimum Vo=Vz*(R5/(R4+R5)) error=round(Vomax-Vo,4) #Deviation of output voltage from theoretical value #Result print "Therefore Vo=",int(Vo),"V ±",error*10**6,"micro volt"
Therefore Vo= 5 V ± 700.0 micro volt
import math #Variable Declaration Rab=100 #Resistance of wire AB, in ohm Vb1=3 #Battery B1, terminal voltage(V) Vb2=1.0190 #Standard Cell Voltage(V) l=50.95 #Length BC, in cm #At Calibration Vbc=Vb2 volt_per_unit_length=Vbc/l #in V/cm Vab=100*volt_per_unit_length #in V I=Vab/Rab #Ohm's Law Vr1=Vb1-Vab #KVL R1=Vr1/I #At 94.3cm Vx=94.3*volt_per_unit_length #Worst case: Terminal voltage of B2 or B1 may be reversed #Total voltage producing current flow through standard cell is Vt=Vb2+Vb1 R2=Vt/(20*10**-6) #Value of resistance R2 to limit standard cell current to a maximum of 20 micro ampere print "When the potentiometer is calibrated, I=",I*10**3,"mA" print "R1=",R1,"ohm" print print "Vx=",round(Vx,3),"V" print print "The value of R2 to limit standard cell current to 20 micro ampere is ",int(R2*10**-3),"kilo ohm"
When the potentiometer is calibrated, I= 20.0 mA R1= 50.0 ohm Vx= 1.886 V The value of R2 to limit standard cell current to 20 micro ampere is 200 kilo ohm
import math R3=509.5 #in ohm R4=290.5 #in ohm R13=100 #in ohm l=100 #in cm Vb2=1.0190 #in V(Standard Cell Voltage) Vr3=Vb2 I1=Vb2/R3 #Ohm's Law #Maximum measurable voltage: Vae=I1*(R3+R4) #Maximum measurable voltage in V #Resolution I2=Vae/(8*R13) #in A Vab=I2*R13 slidewire_vper_length=Vab/l #in V/mm instrument_resolution=slidewire_vper_length*1 #As contact can be read within 1 mm, 1 is multiplied print "The instrument can measure a maximum of",Vae,"V" print "Instrument resolution=±",instrument_resolution*10**2,"mV"
The instrument can measure a maximum of 1.6 V Instrument resolution=± 0.2 mV