In [1]:

```
#Variable declaration
x=25
#Calculations&Results
s=int(bin(x)[2:])
print "1. Binary equivalent of 25 is ",s
y=576
s1=int(bin(y)[2:])
print "2. Binary equivalent of 576 is ",s1
```

In [2]:

```
#Variable declaration
s='1111'
#Calculations
x=int(s,2)
#Result
print "Decimal equivalent of 1111 is ",x
```

In [63]:

```
import math
p = 1.;
#initialising variables
z = 0;
b = 0;
w = 0;
f = 0;
bin1 = 11.1101;
d = bin1%1; #separating the decimal part and the integer part
d = d*10**10;
a = math.floor(bin1);#removing the decimal part
b = []
while(a>0):#loop to take the binary bits of integer into a matrix
r = a%10;
b.append(r);
a = a/10;
a = math.floor(a);
for m in range(len(b)):#multiplying the bits of integer with their position values and adding
c = m;
f = f+b[m]*(2**c);
w = []
while(d>0):#loop to take the binary bits of decimal into a matrix
e = d%2
w.append(e)
d = d /10;
d = math.floor(d)
for n in range(len(w)):#multiplying the bits of decimal with their position values and adding
z = z+w[n] *(0.5)**(11-n+1);
z = z*10000;
#rounding of to 4 decimal values
z = round(z);
z = z/10000;
print "The decimal equivalent of 11.1101 is = %.4f"%(f+z)
#answers differ due to usage of in-built functions
```

In [100]:

```
import math
#Variable declaration
q=0.;
b=0.;
s=0.;
a=4.625;
#Calculations
a=math.floor(a);#removing the decimal part
while(a>0):#taking integer part into a matrix and converting into equivalent binary
x=(a%2);
b=b+(10**q)*x;
a=a/2;
a=math.floor(a);
q=q+1;
for i in range(1,10):#for values after decimal point converting into binary
d=a*2;
q=math.floor(d);
s=s+q/(10**i);
if d>=1:
d=d-1;
k=b+s;
#Result
print "The binary equivalent of 4.625 is =" ,k
```

In [29]:

```
#Variable declaration
def toStr(n,base):
convertString = "0123456789ABCDEF"
if n < base:
return convertString[n]
else:
return toStr(n//base,base) + convertString[n%base]
dec=263
base=5
#Calculations
s=toStr(dec,base)
#Result
print "Equivalent of 263 in a code base 5 is ",s
```

In [50]:

```
#Variable declaration
x=2
#Calculations
s=x+x
s1=bin(s)
#Result
print "Binary addition corresponding to decimal addition 2+2 is ",int(s1[2:])
```

In [51]:

```
#Variable declaration
x='11111'
y='1011'
z='101'
w='10'
v='1'
#Calculations
s1=int(x,2)
s2=int(y,2)
s3=int(z,2)
s4=int(w,2)
s5=int(v,2)
a=s1+s2+s3+s4+s5
b=int(bin(a)[2:])
#Results
print "Binary addition of 11111+1011+101+10+1 is ",b
print "Decimal equivalent corresponding to above binary addition is ",a
```

In [52]:

```
#Variable declaration
x='1101'
y='111'
#Calculations
s1=int(x,2)
s2=int(y,2)
a=s1-s2
s=int(bin(a)[2:])
#Result
print "Binary subtraction 1101-111 is =",s
```

In [56]:

```
#Variable declaration
hFE=30#hFE=dc current gain of given silicon transistor
VBE=0.8#VBE=base-emitter voltage drop at saturation
VCE=0.2#VCE=collector-emitter voltage drop at saturation
R1=15.*1000#resistance at the base side of the transistor in ohms
R2=100*1000#another resistance at the base side of the transistor in ohms
RL=2*1000#load resistance at the collector side of the transistor in ohms
VCC=10#VCC=collector supply voltage
VBB=-10#VBB=base supply voltage
#Calculations&Results
#If the input level is 0 volt i e vi=0,the open-circuited base voltage is given as
VB=VBB*(R1/(R1+R2))
print "For input level 0 V:"
print "As a bias of approximately 0V is sufficient to cut off a silicon emitter junction, it follows that transistor is cut off when vi=0"
print "When vi=0,the output voltage is vo=VCC=%.f V"%VCC
print "This indicates that the output is in state 1 when the input is in state 0"
#When the input level is 10 volt i e vi=10, we have to show that the transistor is in saturation
#The minimum base current for saturation is given by iB(min)=iC/hFE
iC=(VCC-VCE)/RL#collector current when the transistor saturates
iB=iC/hFE#iB=iB(min)=minimum base current for saturation in mA
i1=(10-VBE)/R1#i1=current through R1 resistor connected at the base side and here vi=10 is taken
i2=(VBE-VBB)/R2#i2=current through R2 resistor connected at the base side
iB1=i1-i2#iB1=actual base current
print "\nFor input level 10 V:"
if (iB1>iB):
print "Since iB>iB(min),it is verified that the transistor is in saturation"#iB indicates actual base current & iB(min) indicates minimum base current for saturation
print "When vi=10,the output voltage is vo=VCE(sat)=%.1f V"%VCE
print "This indicates that the output is in state 0 when the input is in state 1"
print "Overall it has been thus verified that the circuit has performed the NOT operation"
```

In [57]:

```
#Variable declaration
A=0
B=0
#Calculations&Results
C=(A|B)#bitwise OR operation is performed
print "Boolean expression C=A+B for inputs A=0 and B=0 is",C
A=1
B=0
C=(A|B)
print "Boolean expression C=A+B for inputs A=1 and B=0 is",C
A=1
B=1
C=(A|B)
print "Boolean expression C=A+B for inputs A=1 and B=1 is",C
```