In [1]:

```
# Variables
t = 289.6; #temperature in K
dt = 0.0244; #raise in temperature in deg.C
v1 = 0.00095; #volume occupied in liquid state in litres
v2 = 0.00079; #volume occupied in solid state in litres
# Calculations
l = t*(v1-v2)/dt; #latent heat of fusion in lit.atm
# Result
print 'the latent heat of fusion is %3.2f lit.atm'%(l)
```

In [3]:

```
# Variables
t = 295. #temperature of water in K
dp = 10**6. #cahnge in pressure in dyne/sq.cm
j = 4.2*10**7; #joules constant in ergs/cal
# Calculations
dc = -t*10**-5*dp/j; #change in specific heat
# Result
print 'the change in specific heat is %.e cal/degree'%(dc)
```

In [4]:

```
# Variables
cp = 0.0909 #specific heat at consmath.tant pressure in cal/degree
t = 273; #temperature in K
v = 0.112; #specific volume in lit/deg.C
a = 5.01*10**(-6); #coefficient of linear expansion
k = 8*10**-7; #compressibility of copper in per atoms
# Calculations
cv = cp+(9*a**2*v*t*0.024142*10**3/k); #specific heat at constant volume in cal/deg.C
# Result
print 'specific heat at constant volume is %3.2f cal/deg.C'%(cv)
```

In [5]:

```
# Variables
t = 289.6; #temperature in K
dt = 0.0244; #raise in temperature in deg.C
v1 = 0.00095; #volume occupied in liquid state in litres
v2 = 0.00079; #volume occupied in solid state in litres
# Calculations
l = t*(v1-v2)/dt; #latent heat of fusion in lit.atm
# Result
print 'the latent heat of fusion is %3.3f lit.atm'%(l)
```

In [6]:

```
# Variables
l = 539; #latent heat of water at 100deg.C in cal
j = 4.2*10**7; #joules constant in ergs/cal
t = 373; #temperature of water in K
v2 = 1670; #volume of steam formed in cc
v1 = 1; #intial volume in cc
g = 981; #acceleration due to gravity in cm/sec**2
d = 13.6; #specific gravity of hg
# Calculations
dp = l*j/(t*(v2-v1)*g*d); #rate of change of saturation pressure in cm of mercury
# Result
print 'the rate of change of saturation pressure is %3.1f cm of hg'%(dp)
```

In [8]:

```
# Variables
p1 = 77.371; #pressure at 100.5deg.C in cm of hg
p2 = 74.650; #pressure at 99.5deg.C in cm of hg
g = 981; #universal gas constant in cm/sec**2
d = 13.6; #specific gravity
l = 537; #latent heat of vapourisation in cal/gm
t = 373; #temperature of water in K
j = 4.2*10**7; #joules constant in ergs/cal
v1 = 1; #intial volume in cc
# Calculations
v2 = v1+(l*j/(t*(p1-p2)*g*d)); #volume of gram of steam at 100deg.C in cc
# Result
print 'volume of gram of steam at 100deg.C is %.f cc'%(v2)
```

In [9]:

```
# Variables
t = 350; #boiling point temperature in K
l = 46; #latent heat of vapourisation in cal/gm
v1 = 1/1.6; #intial volume in cc
dp = 2.3; #change in pressure with temperature in cm of hg/deg.C
d = 13.6; #specific gravity of mercury
g = 981; #acceleration due to gravity in cm/sec**2
j = 4.2*10**7; #joukes constant in ergs/cal
#CALCULTIONS
v2 = v1+(l*j)/(t*dp*d*g); #specific volume in cc
# Result
print 'specific volume of vapour of carbon is %3.3f cc'%(v2)
print "Note : Answer is slightly different because of rounding error"
```

In [10]:

```
# Variables
l = 536.; #latent heat of vapourisation in cal/gm
v1 = 1.; #volume of 1 gm of water in cc
v2 = 1600.; #volume of steam in cc
t = 373.; #boiling point of water in K
p = 1.; #pressure in cm of hg
d = 13.6; #specific gravity of mercury
g = 981.; #gravitational constant in cm/sec**2s/cal
j = 4.2*10**7; #joules constant in erg/cal
# Calculations
dt = (t*(v2-v1)*d*g)/(l*j); #change in temperature in deg.C
# Result
print 'change in temperature is %3.2f deg.C'%(dt)
```

In [12]:

```
# Variables
t = 353; #temperature in K
p = 76*13.6*981; #pressure in dynes/sq.cm
v = 0.146; #specific volume in cc/kg
l = 35.6; #latent heat of fusion in cal/gm
j = 4.18*10**7; #joules constant in ergs/cal
# Calculations
dt = t*p*v/(l*j); #change in melting point per atmosphere
# Result
print 'the rate of change in melting point is %.3f per atmosphere'%(dt)
```

In [1]:

```
# Variables
l = 79.6*4.18*10**7; #latent heat of water in ergs/gm
t = 273.16; #temperature of water in K
v1 = 1.0001; #specific volume of water at 0deg.C in cc
v2 = 1.0908; #specific volume of ice at 0deg.C in cc
p = 1.013*10**6; #pressure of atmosphere in dyne/sq.cm
# Calculations
dt = t*(v1-v2)*p/l; #change in freezing point of water in deg.C
# Result
print 'change in freezing point of water is %3.4f deg.C'%(dt)
```