In [1]:

```
from __future__ import division
# Determine the following parameter of 8-bit A/D converter a) Normalized step size b) Actual step size c) Normalized maximum quantization level d) Actual maximum quantization e) Normalized peak quantization error f) Actual peak quantization error g) Percentage of quantization error
N = 8 #
Vin = 12 #
#a) Normalized step size of A/D converter
Ns = 2**-N #
print 'Normalized step size of A/D converter is = %0.8f'%Ns
# b) Actual step size of A/D converter
As = Vin*Ns #
print 'Actual step size of A/D converter is = %0.6f'%As
# c) Normalized maximum quantization level of A/D converter
Qmax = 1-2**-N #
print 'Normalized maximum quantization level of A/D converter is = %0.4f'%Qmax
# d) Actual maximum quantization level of A/D converter
QAmax = Qmax*Vin #
print 'Actual maximum quantization level of A/D converter is = %0.4f'%QAmax
# e) Normalized peak quantization error of A/D converter
Qp = 2**-(N+1)#
print 'Normalized peak quantization error of A/D converter is = %0.6f'%Qp
# f) Actual peak quantization error of A/D converter
Qe = Qp*Vin #
print 'Actual peak quantization error of A/D converter is = %0.6f'%Qe,' V '#
# g) Percentage of quantization error of A/D converter
per_Qp = 2**-(N+1)*100 #
print 'Percentage of quantization error of A/D converter is = %0.4f'%per_Qp
```

In [2]:

```
from __future__ import division
# to determine the binary output of the 8-bit dual slope A/D converter
Vin = 8.5 #
VR = 10 #
f = 2 # #MHz
N = 8 #
C = 0.1*10**-6 #
R = 2*10**3 #
# the output of integrator is defined as
# Viao(T1) = -(Vin/R*C)*T1 #
# charging time of capacitor
T1 = 2**N/f #
print 'charging time of capacitor is = %0.2f'%T1,' u sec'
# the integrator output
T1 = T1*10**-6 #
Viao =-(Vin/(R*C))*T1#
print 'the integrator output is = %0.2f'%Viao,' V'
# the binary output of a dual slope A/D converter
Bn = (2**N*Vin)/VR#
print 'the decimal output of a dual slope A/D converter is = %0.2f'%Bn,' = 218'#
Bn=218#
Bn = bin(Bn) #
print 'The binary output of a dual slope A/D converter is =',Bn[2:]
```

In [3]:

```
from __future__ import division
# to determine the resolution of 12-bit A/D converter
N =12 #
Vin = 15 #
# Resolution of an A/D converter
Resolution = Vin/(2**N-1)#
print 'Resolution of an A/D converter is = %0.4f'%Resolution,' V '
#
```

In [4]:

```
from __future__ import division
# to determine the output time and duty cycle of V/T converter
Vin = 5 #
C = 0.1*10**-6 #
R = 10*10**3 #
C1 = 100*10**-6 #
# The output time of a V/T converter is given as
T = (7.5*C1)/(Vin) #
print 'The output time of a V/T converter is =',T*1000,' msec'
TH = 0.075 #
TL=TH # # we consider
# The duty cycle of V?T converter
D = (TL+TH)/(TH) #
print 'The duty cycle of V?T converter is = %0.2f'%D
# The output voltage of an integrator is define as
Vio = -(Vin)/(R*C)*T #
print 'The output voltage of an integrator is is = %0.2f'%Vio,' V'
```