In [1]:

```
#example 17.1
#page no. 466
# Given that
L=20#in mm Final length of the ceramic part
#Linear shrinkage during drying and firing is 7% and 6% respectively
Sd=0.070#Linear shrinkage during drying
Sf=0.06#Linear shrinkage during firing
# Sample Problem on page no. 466
print("\n # Dimensional changes during the shaping of ceramic components # \n")
#part (a)
Ld=L/(1.-Sf)#dried length
Lo=(1.+Sd)*Ld#initial length
print'%s %.6f %s' %("\n\nInitial Length=",Lo,"mm")
#Answer in the book is approximated to 22.77mm
#part(b)
Pf=0.03#Fired Porosity
r = (1.-Pf)# Where r = Va/Vf
R = 1./((1.-Sf)**3.)# Where R = Vd/Vf
Pd = (1.-r/R)
print'%s %d %s' %("\n\nDried porosity is ",Pd*100,"%")
```