In [1]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.91; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.03; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
O = 0.02; #Percentage composition of Oxygen
N = 0.008; #Percentage composition of Nitrogen
S = 0.008; #Percentage composition of Sulphur
# Calculations
m = (11.5*C)+(34.5*(H-(O/8)))+(4.3*S); #Mass of air per kg of coal in kg
# Results
print 'Minimum mass of air per kg of coal is %3.2f kg'%(m)
```

In [2]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.86; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.12; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
O = 0.01; #Percentage composition of Oxygen
S = 0.01; #Percentage composition of Sulphur
v = 0.773; #Specific volume of air at N.T.P in (m**3)/kg
# Calculations
m = (11.5*C)+(34.5*(H-(O/8)))+(4.3*S); #Theoretical mass of air per kg of coal in kg
vth = m*v; #Theoretical volume of air at N.T.P per kg fuel in (m**3)/kg of fuel
# Results
print 'Theoretical volume of air at N.T.P per kg fuel is %3.2f m**3)/kg of fuel'%(vth)
```

In [3]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.78; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.06; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
O = 0.078; #Percentage composition of Oxygen
N = 0.012; #Percentage composition of Nitrogen
S = 0.03; #Percentage composition of Sulphur
# Calculations
m = (11.5*C)+(34.5*(H-(O/8)))+(4.3*S); #Minimum quantity of air required in kg
mt = ((11*C)/3)+(9*H)+(2*S)+(8.32+N); #Total mass of products of combustion in kg
# Results
print 'Minimum quantity of air required for complete combustion is %3.2f kg \
\nTotal mass of products of combustion is %3.3f kg'%(m,mt)
```

In [2]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.84; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.09; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
CO2 = 0.0875; #Volumetric composition of CO2
CO = 0.0225; #Volumetric composition of CO
O2 = 0.08; #Volumetric composition of Oxygen
N2 = 0.81; #Volumetric composition of Nitrogen
M1 = 44.; #Molecular mass of CO2
M2 = 28.; #Molecular mass of CO
M3 = 32.; #Molecular mass of O2
M4 = 28.; #Molecular mass of N2
# Calculations
c1 = CO2*M1; #Proportional mass of CO2
c2 = CO*M2; #Proportional mass of CO
c3 = O2*M3; #Proportional mass of O2
c4 = N2*M4; #Proportional mass of N2
c = c1+c2+c3+c4; #Total proportional mass of constituents
m1 = c1/c; #Mass of CO2 per kg of flue gas in kg
m2 = c2/c; #Mass of CO per kg of flue gas in kg
m3 = c3/c; #Mass of O2 per kg of flue gas in kg
m4 = c4/c; #Mass of N2 per kg of flue gas in kg
d1 = m1*100; #Mass analysis of CO2
d2 = m2*100; #Mass analysis of CO
d3 = m3*100; #Mass analysis of O2
d4 = m4*100; #Mass analysis of N2
m = ((3*m1)/11)+((3*m2)/7.); #Mass of carbon in kg
md = C/m; #Mass of dry flue gas in kg
# Results
print 'Mass of dry flue gases per kg of coal burnt is %.f kg'%(md)
# note : rounding off error
```

In [5]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.624; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.042; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
O = 0.045; #Percentage composition of Oxygen
CO2 = 0.13; #Volumetric composition of CO2
CO = 0.003; #Volumetric composition of CO
O2 = 0.06; #Volumetric composition of Oxygen
N2 = 0.807; #Volumetric composition of Nitrogen
M1 = 44; #Molecular mass of CO2
M2 = 28; #Molecular mass of CO
M3 = 32; #Molecular mass of O2
M4 = 28; #Molecular mass of N2
mw = 0.378; #Mass of H2O in kg
# Calculations
m = (11.5*C)+(34.5*(H-(O/8))); #Minimum air required in kg
c1 = CO2*M1; #Proportional mass of CO2
c2 = CO*M2; #Proportional mass of CO
c3 = O2*M3; #Proportional mass of O2
c4 = N2*M4; #Proportional mass of N2
c = c1+c2+c3+c4; #Total proportional mass of constituents
m1 = c1/c; #Mass of CO2 per kg of flue gas in kg
m2 = c2/c; #Mass of CO per kg of flue gas in kg
m3 = c3/c; #Mass of O2 per kg of flue gas in kg
m4 = c4/c; #Mass of N2 per kg of flue gas in kg
d1 = m1*100; #Mass analysis of CO2
d2 = m2*100; #Mass analysis of CO
d3 = m3*100; #Mass analysis of O2
d4 = m4*100; #Mass analysis of N2
mC = ((3*m1)/11)+((3*m2)/7); #Mass of carbon in kg
md = C/mC; #Mass of dry flue gas in kg
mact = (md+mw)-(C+H+O); #Actual air supplied per kg of fuel in kg
me = mact-m; #Mass of excess air per kg of fuel in kg
# Results
print 'Minimum air required to burn 1 kg of coal is %3.2f kg \
\nMass of air actually supplied per kg of coal is %3.3f kg \
\nAmount of excess air supplied per kg of coal burnt is %3.3f kg'%(m,mact,me)
#rounding-off errors
```

In [6]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.78; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.03; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
O = 0.03; #Percentage composition of Oxygen
S = 0.01; #Percentage composition of Sulphur
me = 0.3; #Mass of excess air supplied
# Calculations
m = (11.5*C)+(34.5*(H-(O/8)))+(4.3*S); #Mass of air per kg of coal in kg
mec = me*m; #Excess air supplied per kg of coal in kg
mact = m+mec; #Actual mass of air supplied per kg of coal in kg
mCO2 = (11*C)/3; #Mass of CO2 produced per kg of coal in kg
mHw = 9*H; #Mass of H2O produced per kg of coal in kg
mSO2 = 2*S; #Mass of SO2 produced per kg of coal in kg
mO2 = 0.232*mec; #Mass of excess O2 produced per kg of coal in kg
mN2 = 0.768*mact; #Mass of N2 produced per kg of coal in kg
# Results
print 'Mass of air to be supplied is %3.2f kg \
\nMass of CO2 produced per kg of coal is %3.2f kg \
\nMass of H2O produced per kg of coal is %3.2f kg\
\nMass of SO2 produced per kg of coal is %3.2f kg \
\nMass of excess O2 produced per kg of coal is %3.2f kg \
\nMass of N2 produced per kg of coal is %3.2f kg '%(m,mCO2,mHw,mSO2,mO2,mN2)
```

In [3]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.9; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.033; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
O = 0.03; #Percentage composition of Oxygen
N = 0.008; #Percentage composition of Nitrogen
S = 0.009; #Percentage composition of Sulphur
M1 = 44; #Molecular mass of CO2
M2 = 64; #Molecular mass of SO2
M3 = 32; #Molecular mass of O2
M4 = 28; #Molecular mass of N2
# Calculations
m = (11.5*C)+(34.5*(H-(O/8)))+(4.3*S); #Minimum mass of air per kg of coal in kg
mCO2 = (11*C)/3; #Mass of CO2 produced per kg of coal in kg
mHw = 9*H; #Mass of H2O produced per kg of coal in kg
mSO2 = 2*S; #Mass of SO2 produced per kg of coal in kg
mt = 11.5*1.5; #Total mass of air supplied per kg of coal in kg
me = mt-m; #Excess air supplied in kg
mO2 = 0.232*me; #Mass of excess O2 produced per kg of coal in kg
mN2 = 0.768*mt; #Mass of N2 produced per kg of coal in kg
mtN2 = mN2+N; #Total mass of Nitrogen in exhaust in kg
md = mCO2+mSO2+mO2+mtN2; #Total mass of dry flue gases per kg of fuel in kg
CO2 = (mCO2/md)*100; #Percentage composition of CO2 by mass in percent
SO2 = (mSO2/md)*100; #Percentage composition of SO2 by mass in percent
O2 = (mO2/md)*100; #Percentage composition of O2 by mass in percent
N2 = (mN2/md)*100; #Percentage composition of N2 by mass in percent
c1 = CO2/M1; #Proportional volume of CO2
c2 = SO2/M2; #Proportional volume of SO2
c3 = O2/M3; #Proportional volume of O2
c4 = N2/M4; #Proportional volume of N2
c = c1+c2+c3+c4; #Total proportional volume of constituents
m1 = c1/c; #Volume of CO2 in 1 (m**3) of flue gas
m2 = c2/c; #Volume of SO2 in 1 (m**3) of flue gas
m3 = c3/c; #Volume of O2 in 1 (m**3) of flue gas
m4 = c4/c; #Volume of N2 in 1 (m**3) of flue gas
d1 = m1*100; #Volume analysis of CO2
d2 = m2*100; #Volume analysis of SO2
d3 = m3*100; #Volume analysis of O2
d4 = m4*100; #Volume analysis of N2
# Results
print 'Minimum mass of air required is %3.1f kg \
\nTotal mass of dry flue gases per kg of fuel is %3.2f kg \
\nPercentage composition of CO2 by volume is %3.2f percent \
\nPercentage composition of SO2 by volume is %3.3f percent \
\nPercentage composition of O2 by volume is %3.1f percent \
\nPercentage composition of N2 by volume is %3.2f percent'%(m,md,d1,d2,d3,d4)
# note : rounding off error
```

In [5]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.88; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.036; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
O = 0.048; #Percentage composition of oxygen
CO2 = 0.109; #Volumetric composition of CO2
CO = 0.01; #Volumetric composition of CO
O2 = 0.071; #Volumetric composition of Oxygen
N2 = 0.81; #Volumetric composition of Nitrogen
M1 = 44.; #Molecular mass of CO2
M2 = 28.; #Molecular mass of CO
M3 = 32.; #Molecular mass of O2
M4 = 28.; #Molecular mass of N2
# Calculations
m = (11.5*C)+(34.5*(H-(O/8))); #Theoretical air required in kg
c1 = CO2*M1; #Proportional mass of CO2
c2 = CO*M2; #Proportional mass of CO
c3 = O2*M3; #Proportional mass of O2
c4 = N2*M4; #Proportional mass of N2
c = c1+c2+c3+c4; #Total proportional mass of constituents
m1 = c1/c; #Mass of CO2 per kg of flue gas in kg
m2 = c2/c; #Mass of CO per kg of flue gas in kg
m3 = c3/c; #Mass of O2 per kg of flue gas in kg
m4 = c4/c; #Mass of N2 per kg of flue gas in kg
mC = ((3*m1)/11)+((3*m2)/7); #Mass of carbon in kg
md = C/mC; #Mass of dry flue gas in kg
hc = H*9; #Hydrogen combustion in kg of H2O
mair = (md+hc)-(C+H+O); #Mass of air supplied per kg of coal in kg
me = mair-m; #Excess air per kg of coal in kg
mN2 = m4*md; #Mass of nitrogen per kg of coal in kg
mact = mN2/0.768; #Actual mass of air per kg of coal in kg
pe = (me/m)*100; #Perccentage excess air in percent
# Results
print 'Mass of air actually supplied per kg of coal is %3.2f kg \
\nPercentage of excess air is %.f percent'%(mact,pe)
# note : rounding off error
```

In [1]:

```
# Variables
C = 0.84; #Percentage composition of Carbon
H = 0.14; #Percentage composition of Hydrogen
O = 0.02; #Percentage composition of oxygen
CO2 = 8.85; #Volumetric composition of CO2
CO = 1.2; #Volumetric composition of CO
O2 = 6.8; #Volumetric composition of Oxygen
N2 = 83.15; #Volumetric composition of Nitrogen
M1 = 44.; #Molecular mass of CO2
M2 = 28.; #Molecular mass of CO
M3 = 32.; #Molecular mass of O2
M4 = 28.; #Molecular mass of N2
a = 8/3.; #O2 required per kg C
b = 8.; #O2 required per kg H2
mair = 0.23; #Mass of air
# Calculations
c = C*a; #O2 required per kg of fuel for C
d = H*b; #O2 required per kg of fuel for H2
tO2 = c+d+O; #Theoreticcal O2 required in kg/kg of fuel
tm = tO2/mair; #Theoretical mass of air in kg/kg of fuel
c1 = CO2*M1; #Proportional mass of CO2 by Volume
c2 = CO*M2; #Proportional mass of CO by Volume
c3 = O2*M3; #Proportional mass of O2 by Volume
c4 = N2*M4; #Proportional mass of N2 by Volume
c = c1+c2+c3+c4; #Total proportional mass of constituents
m1 = c1/c; #Mass of CO2 per kg of flue gas in kg
m2 = c2/c; #Mass of CO per kg of flue gas in kg
m3 = c3/c; #Mass of O2 per kg of flue gas in kg
m4 = c4/c; #Mass of N2 per kg of flue gas in kg
mC = ((m1*12)/M1)+((m2*12)/M2); #Mass of carbon per kg of dry flue gas in kg
md = C/mC; #Mass of dry flue per kg of fuel in kg
p = (4*m2)/7; #Oxygen required to burn CO in kg
meO2 = md*(m3-p); #Mass of excess O2 per kg of fuel in kg
me = meO2/mair; #Mass of excess air in kg/kg fuel
mt = tm+me; #Total air required per kg fuel
# Results
print 'Mass of excess air supplied per kg of fuel burnt is %3.1f kg/kg of fuel \
\nAir-fuel ratio is %3.1f:1'%(me,mt)
# rounding off error
```

In [10]:

```
# Variables
H2 = 0.27; #Percentage composition of H2 by volume
CO2 = 0.18; #Percentage composition of CO2 by volume
CO = 0.125; #Percentage composition of CO by volume
CH4 = 0.025; #Percentage composition of CH4 by volume
N2 = 0.4; #Percentage composition of N2 by volume
# Calculations
v = (2.38*(H2+CO))+(9.52*CH4); #Volume of air required for complete combustion in (m**3)
# Results
print 'Volume of air required for complete combustion is %3.3f m**3)'%(v)
```

In [3]:

```
# Variables
H2 = 0.5; #Percentage composition of H2 by volume
CO2 = 0.1; #Percentage composition of CO2 by volume
CO = 0.05; #Percentage composition of CO by volume
CH4 = 0.25; #Percentage composition of CH4 by volume
N2 = 0.1; #Percentage composition of N2 by volume
pCO2 = 8; #Percentage volumetric analysis of CO2
pO2 = 6; #Percentage volumetric analysis of O2
pN2 = 86; #Percentage volumetric analysis of N2
# Calculations
v = (2.38*(H2+CO))+(9.52*CH4); #Volume of air required for complete combustion in (m**3)
vN2 = v*0.79; #Volume of nitrogen in the air in m**3
a = CO+CH4+CO2; #CO2 formed per m**3 of fuel gas burnt
b = vN2+N2; #N2 formed per m**3 of fuel gas burnt
vt = a+b; #Total volume of dry flue gas formed in m**3
ve = (pO2*vt)/(21-pO2); #Excess air supplied in m**3
V = v+ve; #Total quantity of air supplied in m**3
afr = V/1
# Results
print 'Air-fuel ratio by volume is %3.3f'%(afr)
```

In [12]:

```
# Variables
H2 = 0.14; #Percentage composition of H2 by volume
CO2 = 0.05; #Percentage composition of CO2 by volume
CO = 0.22; #Percentage composition of CO by volume
CH4 = 0.02; #Percentage composition of CH4 by volume
O2 = 0.02; #Percentage composition of O2 by volume
N2 = 0.55; #Percentage composition of N2 by volume
e = 0.4; #Excess air supplied
# Calculations
v = (2.38*(H2+CO))+(9.52*CH4)-(4.76*O2); #Volume of air required for complete combustion in (m**3)
ve = v*e; #Volume of excess air supplied in m**3
vtN2 = v-(v*0.21); #Volume of N2 in theoretical air in m**3
veN2 = ve-(ve*0.21); #Volume of N2 in excess air in m**3
vt = vtN2+veN2; #Total volume of N2 in air supplied in m**3
vCO2 = CO+CH4+CO2; #CO2 formed per m**3 of fuel gas
vN2 = vt+N2; #N2 formed per m**3 of fuel gas
veO2 = ve*0.21; #Volume of excess O2 per m**3 of fuel gas
vT = vCO2+vN2+veO2; #Total volume of dry combustion products
pCO2 = (vCO2*100)/vT; #Percentage volume of CO2
pN2 = (vN2*100)/vT; #Percentage volume of N2
pO2 = (veO2*100)/vT; #Percentage volume of O2
# Results
print 'Volume of air required for complete combustion is %3.3f m**3) \
\nVolume of CO2 per m**3 of gas fuel is %3.2f m**3/m**3 of gas fuel \
\nVolume of N2 per m**3 of gas fuel is %3.3f m**3/m**3 of gas fuel \
\nVolume of excess O2 per m**3 of gas fuel is %3.2f m**3/m**3 of gas fuel \
\nTotal volume of dry combustion products is %3.3f m**3/m**3 of gas fuel \
\nPercentage volume of CO2 is %3.1f percent \
\nPercentage volume of N2 is %3.2f percent \
\nPercentage volume of O2 is %3.2f percent'%(v,vCO2,vN2,veO2,vT,pCO2,pN2,pO2)
```