In [14]:

```
#Given
V=80.0 #expected value of voltage in Volts
V1=79 #Volts
#Calculation
E=V-V1
E1=((V-V1)/V)*100
E2=1-((V-V1)/V)
A=100*E2
#Result
print"(i) Absolute error is ",E,"V"
print"(ii) percent error is ", E1,"%"
print"(iii) reletive error is ", E2
print"(iv) percent of accuracy is ", A,"%"
```

In [13]:

```
#Given
Yn=20.0 #mA
Xn=18 #mA
#Calculation
e=Yn-Xn
E=(e/Yn)*100
A=1-(e/Yn)
a=A*100
#Result
print"(i) Absolute error is ", e,"mA"
print"(ii) Percent error is ",E,"%"
print"(iii) Relative accuracy is ",A
print"(iv) Percent accuracy is ",a,"%"
```

In [26]:

```
#Given
x1=98
x2=101
x3=102
x4=97
x5=101
x6=100
x7=103
x8=98
x9=106
x10=99
#Calculation
X=(x1+x2+x3+x4+x5+x6+x7+x8+x9+x10)/10.0
P=(x6/X)
#Result
print"Precision of the 6th measurment is ",round(P,3)
```

In [14]:

```
#given
V=80 #milliammeter readings
I=10.0 #mA
V1=150 #Volts
R1=1000 #ohm/volt
#Calculation
R=V/I
Rv=R1*V1
Rx=(R*V1)/(V1-R)
E=((Rx-R)/Rx)*100
#Result
print"(i) Apparent resistance of the unknown resistance ",R,"K ohm"
print "(ii) Actual resistance of the unknown resistance is ",round(Rx,2),"K ohm"
print "(iii) Error due to the loading effet of the voltmeter ",round(E,1),"%"
```

In [113]:

```
#Given
V=30 #Volts
V1=150 #Volts
I=0.6 #A
R1=1000 #ohm/volts
#Calculation
R=V/I
Rv=(R1*V1)
Rx=(R*Rv)/(Rv-R)
E=((Rx-R)/Rx)*100
#Result
print"(i) total circuit resistance is ", R,"ohm"
print "(ii) The voltmeter resistance is ",round(Rx,2)
print"(iii) Error due to loading effect of voltmeter ", round(E,3),"%"
```

In [77]:

```
#Given
x1=49.7
x2=50.1
x3=50.2
x4=49.6
x5=49.7
#Calculation
X=(x1+x2+x3+x4+x5)/5.0
d1=x1-X
d2=x2-X
d3=x3-X
d4=x4-X
d5=x5-X
dtotal=(d1+d2+d3+d4+d5)
#Result
print"(i) Arithmetic mean is ", X
print"(ii) derivations from each value are"
print "d1=",d1,"\nd2=",d2,"\nd3=",d3,"\nd4=",d4,"\nd5=",d5
print"(iii) The algebric sum of derivative is ",round(dtotal,2)
```

In [86]:

```
#Given
x1=49.7
x2=50.1
x3=50.2
x4=49.6
x5=49.7
#Calculation
X=(x1+x2+x3+x4+x5)/5.0
d1=x1-X
d2=x2-X
d3=x3-X
d4=x4-X
d5=x5-X
dtotal=(d1+d2+d3+d4+d5)/5.0
#Result
print"The average deviation is ",round(dtotal*10**14,3)
```

In [90]:

```
#Given
d1= -0.16
d2= 0.24
d3= 0.34
d4= -0.26
d5= -0.16
#Calculation
import math
D=math.sqrt((d1**2+d2**2+d3**2+d4**2+d5**2)/4.0)
#Result
print"The standard deviation is ",round(D,2)
```

In [94]:

```
#Given
V=600 #Volts
V1=250.0 #Volts
a=0.02
#Calculation
M=a*V
E=(M/V1)*100
#Result
print"The limited error is ", E,"%"
```

In [20]:

```
#Given
a=0.02
I=500 #mA
I1=300.0 #mA
#Calculation
M1=I*a
M2=(M1/I1)*100
#Result
print"Limiting error is ", round(M2,1),"%"
```

In [102]:

```
#Given
V=70.0 #Volts
V1=100 #Volts
I=80.0 #mA
I1=150 #mA
a=0.015
#calculation
M=a*V1
E=(M/V)*100
E1=a*I1
E2=(E1/I)*100
E3=E+E2
#Result
print"limiting error is ",round (E3,3),"%"
```